Mosquito-borne diseases has threaten World
Mosquito Bourne Diseases
Diseases that transmitted by a mosquito bite are referred to as mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitos are Health Risk. Mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, dengue, and malaria to humans.
Both employers and employees should take precautions against diseases that mosquitoes spread. However, some persons have a moderate, transient disease or (rarely) a severe or long-term illness after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Serious cases of illnesses spread by mosquitoes can be fatal.
Workers at Risk – Mosquito Bourne Desiease
When working in an area where mosquitoes are biting, workers are at risk. Different mosquito species found in various geographical regions, are most active at various times, and transmit various diseases. The risk to employees varies depending on where they are employed—in the United States or abroad—the type of habitat present at the job site, the time of year, and the day of the week.
Workers at risk include:
- Outdoor workers
- Business travelers who may travel to areas with mosquito-borne diseases
- Laboratory workers who may work with potentially infected samples, cultures, or arthropods
- Healthcare workers who may handle patients who are, or might be infected with certain mosquito-borne diseases. Transmission may occur through a break in their skin or via a sharp penetration injury.
Diseases from Mosquito
More people die each year from diseases carried by mosquitoes than any other organism, with over a million deaths worldwide. In addition to diseases that affect humans, mosquitoes can also spread a number of illnesses and parasites that dogs and horses are particularly vulnerable to. These include Eastern equine encephalitis, West Nile virus (WNV), and dog heartworm (EEE). A significant allergic reaction to the saliva of the mosquito that results in a mosquito bite can also cause severe skin irritation, which is what results in the red bump and itching. Protozoan illnesses like malaria, filarial illnesses like dog heartworm, and viral illnesses like dengue, encephalitis, and yellow fever are all spread by mosquitoes. Travelers’ Health from the CDC offers advice on going to places where there may be an issue with human-borne diseases.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
St. Louis Encephalitis
Western Equine Encephalitis
West Nile Virus
Malaria is a long-standing illness. It was most likely invented in Africa, as it was mentioned by the Chinese in 2700 BC and the Sumerians in 1700 BC. Female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. In a letter from Italy in 1740, Horace Walpole is credited with coining the name malaria, which is derived from the Italian “mal-aria” or “foul air” because it was believed to travel on the wind from swamps and rivers. Between the 1880s and the beginning of the 1900s, scientists studied the illness extensively.
Malaria is a disease that affects about 40% of the world’s population, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. With the introduction of DDT and other organochlorine and organophosphate mosquito control insecticides during the 20th century, it was largely exterminated throughout the temperate regions of the planet. Public health initiatives along with an improved level of living, particularly the use of air conditioners and window screens, have mainly restricted the spread of malaria to tropical regions. But it is still present in northern Europe.
A disease, the chikungunya virus spreads through mosquitoes and has become established in the Caribbean. In Florida in July 2014, it has now led to 2 cases of locally transmitted Chikungunya virus. 497 cases of travel-related illness have reported as of July 22, 2014, across 35 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Public health professionals are concerned about the expansion of locally transmitted illnesses and their establishment in states bordering the Caribbean. The term “Chikungunya” derived from a Mozambican dialect phrase, Kimakonde, which means “something which bends up” and reflects the disease’s main symptom, agonising joint pain. The symptoms can last for several weeks and are debilitating despite being rarely deadly. There is no vaccine, and painkillers are the only available primary treatment.
The Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) and the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) are the mosquito species that spread this illness. Both species deposit their eggs in water-holding objects near human habitation, such as cans, old tyres, and other objects, while Ae. aegypti is primarily restricted to the southeastern United States. Sprays applied from trucks and the air, which are common mosquito control strategies, are useless against these mosquitoes. Sanitation and the removal of water-bearing containers are important preventive measures.
DOG HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS)
The third stage infectious larvae travel to the mosquito’s mouthparts, where they can infect a mammal, after undergoing two transformations within one mosquito. The mosquito bite wound is where the larvae enter the skin. The worms tunnel under the skin, where they stay for three to four months. Infection with an unsuitable host, such as a person, usually results in the worms’ death. Although the illness in canines and felines cannot be cured, it can be managed or prevented using medications and/or injections. Although heartworm-infected dogs seldom die, there is some danger involved in treatment, therefore prevention is still the best option. Naturally, effective residual mosquito control methods lessen the risk of mosquito transmission.
A dangerous arboviral illness that affects America, Asia, and Africa is dengue. Dengue has extremely unpleasant symptoms and has recently become more serious in terms of frequency and death, although having a low mortality rate. Dengue spread by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are difficult to manage with traditional spraying methods and prefer to lay their eggs in containers near places where people live.
The growth and adaption of these insects directly responsible for the global spread of dengue. Dengue fever has increased in frequency during the past 16 years. More recently, in 2001, Hawaii reported 85 dengue cases, and in 2010, the Florida Keys reported over 20 cases. More than 11,600 cases of traditional dengue fever and more than 700 cases of DHF were recorded from Venezuela in 2004. Over 600 people have died and 54,000 cases of dengue in Indonesia. Laredo and Nuevo Laredo saw an outbreak with nearly 100 cases in 1999.
A resident survey found a 5% infection incidence, which indicates a high risk of transmission. By the end of 2010, Florida had recorded an additional 65 locally acquired dengue cases, despite intensive control measures implemented by the county and state in the beginning of 2010. All the cases were in Key West, except two cases in two more northerly counties.
The 400-year-old disease known as yellow fever currently only affects tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. It contains cycles for the city and the jungle. Due to the majority of countries’ policies and criteria for yellow fever vaccination, it is no longer a common infection among tourists. In 33 nations, there are roughly 200,000 cases and 30,000 fatalities per year. Asia is not where it happens. It has increased in frequency over the previous ten years.
EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS (EE)
Horses and people can contract Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) via infected mosquitoes. It is one of the most dangerous arboviruses spread by mosquitoes, which harm the central nervous system and result in significant consequences, including death. In the eastern states along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, EEE discovered in freshwater hardwood swampland. Its intricate life cycle includes interactions with birds and a particular class of mosquitoes, including many Culex species including Culiseta melanura.
The disease is carried by these mosquitoes after they feed on diseased birds and subsequently bite humans, horses, and other mammals. EEE cannot be spread from mammals, including humans, as the viremia present in the illness is insufficient to cause further transmission. As a result, people and other animals viewed as “dead-end hosts.” The absence of any symptoms to a moderate flu-like sickness with a temperature, headache, and sore throat are both possible. More severe nervous system infections result in a rapid fever, a terrible headache, convulsions, and coma. The illness claims the lives of about half of these patients. Many of those who survive have irreversible brain damage and need institutional care their whole lives. There is no particular therapy. Horses can get vaccinated, but not people.
ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS (SLE)
Infected mosquitoes spread St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) from birds to people and other mammals (mainly some Culex species). SLE is prevalent in the United States, but particularly in Florida and around the Gulf of Mexico. Florida saw significant SLE epidemics in 1959, 1961, 1962, 1977, and 1990. More vulnerable than people in their 20s to 50s are the elderly and the very young. In the United States, there a total of 4478 confirmed cases of SLE between the years 1964 and 1998 (35 years). The symptoms are comparable to those of EEE, and there is no vaccine for either condition. In June 2003, the first verified case of St. Louis encephalitis in Mississippi since 1994.
LACROSSE ENCEPHALITIS (LAC)
Although LaCrosse encephalitis (LAC) is significantly less common than EEE or SLE, it nevertheless affects about 90 people year across the 13 states east of the Mississippi, primarily in the Appalachian region. Small mammals are the typical warm-blood host of this disease, which was originally noted in 1963 in LaCrosse, Wisconsin. The vector assumed to be a particular species of woodland mosquito (Aedes triseriatus) called the tree-hole mosquito. Less than 16-year-olds rarely die from accidents. It cannot be passed from person to person. The encephalitis caused by LaCrosse has no vaccination.
WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS (WEE)
The first case of Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) in a horse discovered in California in 1930. West of the Mississippi River, encompassing sections of Canada and Mexico, is where it is found. Birds are the most significant vertebrate hosts and the main vector is the Culex tarsalis, while small mammals have a minor role. Less than 1000 instances have reported since 1964, and unlike LAC, it does not affect people specifically. Similar to EEE, a vaccine against WEE is available for horses, but not for humans. Three counties in Arizona have been discovered to have sentinel chicken flocks that are switching over to WEE.
WEST NILE VIRUS (WNV)
In 1937, the West Nile virus (WNV) spread from its African (Uganda) roots to the Middle East, western and central Asia, and associated islands. It belongs to the family Flaviviridae, which has more than 70 known viruses. According to serology, it belongs to the same antigenic complex as the Murray Valley, St. Louis, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Like other encephalitises, it spread by infected mosquitoes to mammals (including horses) and people and cycled between birds and mosquitoes. In one of four illnesses, WNV is described: North Nile The least serious illness is fever, which is often accompanied by headaches, fatigue, pains, and rashes. Almost like the “flu.” This could persist for a few days or for a few weeks. At least 63% of patients claim that their symptoms persist over 30 days, with the median being 60 days.
It made its North American debut in 1999 in New York, where there were 62 confirm cases and 7 fatalities. In 1999, nine horses passed away in New York. Ten states reported 66 human cases in 2001, with 10 deaths. In 27 states, Washington, D.C., Canada, and the Caribbean, it affected horses or birds. In 2001, there were 733 horse cases, 66% of which reported by Florida; 33% of these cases were fatal. More than 1.4 million mosquitoes examined for WNV in 2001. The Culex pipiens group appears to be the most frequent species linked to infecting people and horses in the United States (2004), where over 43 species of mosquitoes have tested positive for WNV transmission. At this time, 300 bird species and 65 mosquito species have tested positive in the United States for this virus.
The South Pacific and the western hemisphere have experienced a rapid spread of the Zika virus since its first in central Africa. Zika, a flavivirus first identified in macaque monkeys in 1947 in the Zika Forest region of Uganda, is a flavivirus related to West Nile, Yellow Fever, St. Louis, and the horse encephalitides. Zika cases have reported in 35 nations in the Americas since the virus discovered in 2014 off the coast of South America.
Because they prefer to lay their eggs above the waterline of containers, treeholes, wrinkles in tarpaulins, and other vessels that may retain water, peridomestic mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus prefer to infest domestic areas. Particularly Aedes aegypti will lay eggs in a number of containers after feeding. When a possible host enters their restricted flight ranges, Aedes agypti and Aedes albopictus will feed both during the day and at night. If the conditions are right, Aedes agypti has a greater propensity to penetrate and remain within homes. Because of its extreme skittishness, this species frequently flees from its host before finishing a full blood meal when the host moves. Additionally, it appears that both mosquitoes favour feeding on the hosts’ lower extremities.
Since of its elusive tendencies, Aedes agypti is resistant to traditional outdoor ULV sprays because it is difficult to make contact with the spray droplets in flight. Urban areas have seen some success using ULV sprays to combat Aedes albopictus, but suburban areas have had less luck. Eliminating both species’ oviposition habitats—which can be done by taking away water-bearing containers or by emptying them and cleaning the insides to remove eggs laid above the waterline—is the main method of managing them. The use of EPA-registered repellents and the wearing of long sleeves and long pants are two additional effective preventative measures.
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